Want to learn all about the BGA rework station? Do not worry you are absolutely at the right place.
Rework is a term that is used for the repair or refinishing operation of electronic PCB assembly that usually involves re-soldering and de-soldering of SMD (surface mounted electronic components).
In the case of a single device replacement or repair, the mass processing procedures or techniques do not apply. The use of appropriate equipment and special manual technique by expert personnel is required for replacing defective components. BGA under area array packages require appropriate tools and expertise.
A rework station is a space for using hot air guns to melt solder and heat devices. These kinds of work are predominantly performed on a workbench.
Now, let us learn about BGA.
What is BGA?
BGA or ball grid array is an integrated circuit chip package that is a surface-mount. It uses solder ball grids as connectors. It has a die attached to the PCB or printed circuit board with ceramic or plastic solder balls in place of meatal leads used in packaging. Ball grid array or BGA is similar to the pin grid array or PGA packaging just that the balls of solder are present instead of pins. This allows more points of contact between the circuit and the die board.
BGA is leading its way to CSP or chip scale packaging where it does not go beyond 1.2 times the size of the die (semiconductor) itself.
Advantages of BGA
- BGA occupies lesser space than packages that are leaked and they have better thermal and electrical performance.
- It has low inductance, high lead count, and compact size. This allows the usage of lower voltages.
- Chips of BGA can be aligned easily to the PCBs (printed circuit board) as the solder balls (solder bumps) also known as leads are placed farther apart if compared to lead packages.
What are the reasons for BGA rework in a station?
Rework is done in manufacturing processes especially when defective devices are found. Here are some electronic defects that might require BGA rework;
- Faulty thermal cycling or faulty assembly might lead to weak solder joints
- Solder bridges where unwanted solder drops that connect point which should be kept apart from each other or isolated.
- Components might be faulty.
- Due to physical stress, excessive current, or natural wear, components might get damaged.
- Due to liquid ingress that generally leads to corrosion, physical damage, or weak solder joints, components might get damaged.
What is the process of BGA reworking in a station?
The rework might involve multiple components that are needed to be worked upon individually without causing damage to the PCB or its surrounding parts. All the other parts that are not being worked upon should be protected from damage and heat.
While working at the station the electronic assembly should be kept at the lowest thermal stress possible. This will prevent board contractions that are totally unnecessary and there will be no possibilities of damage in the future or immediately.
All soldering is done with the help of lead-free solders to prevent lead-related environmental hazards. A hot air gun is used to melt the joints of solder. Finally, the SMD (newly paced) is soldered on the circuit board.
Ball grid arrays or BGA have difficulties with rework and testing because they have multiple closely spaced and small pads on the underside that are connected with the PCB’s matching pads.
Once the BGA package fabrication is done, tiny solder balls are glued to the underside of the pads. Assemblies that tend to fail due to bad connection of BGA can be repaired by reflowing, removing the device, and solder cleaning, replacing, and reballing.
A network that is properly carried out restores the reworked assembly’s total functionality and the rest of the life span won’t get affected. If the reworking cost is less than the price of the assembly then the electronic industry used it widely in all its sectors. Service providers and manufacturers of industrial commodities, consumer devices, communication technology, entertainment devices, medical technology, automobiles, aerospace, and many more electronic sectors with high power perform BGA rework at stations when necessary. A BGA rework station is of high demand and utility in the present day for every electronic sector.